by Xiufeng Huang(黄秀峰), 中国草根文学杂志社(China)
How should we see the hope pf peace from Yemen’s situation
Religion is a cultural phenomenon when human society developed into a certain stage in history and belongs to a special social ideology.
The main religions in current world are Christianity (including Roman Catholics, Protestant and Orthodox Church), Islamic (including Sunnite and Shiah), Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Taoism and Shintoism.
In ancient times, people are on the constant exploration of the unknown universe. In order to pursue a state that goes beyond death, they came to believe a supernatural mysterious power or body exists out of this physical world. Therefore, a set of faith and ritual system came into being for people to revere and worship this mystery. Like the folk legends, religion also has its myth and even intersects with the folk tales together. But in nature it is a spiritual sustenance and ultimate concern.
The established religions have so many types and different manifestations, some of which still prosper till now while others have already declined and extinct. According to the manifestations, religions can be roughly divided into personal psychological religions and group community religions. The personal psychological religion refers to an individual’s faith and experience and has nothing to do with joining a certain religious organization or a certain kind of faith manifestation. But if a person has a devout faith and deep experience and preaches this faith and experience to others who have similar faith, then it can be termed as a religious community. If it is a newly founded religion, then the main advocate is the founder of this religion. If anyone is devoted to the reform of an already-existed religion, then he/she can be called a reformer.
Community religions, if we categorize according to history, can be roughly divided into primitive religions, national religions and world religions. Primitive religions are also called tribal religions which can be date back to ancient times and under developed communities, such as natural worship, spirit worship, totem worship and wizard teachings. National religions are also called ethnic religions and refer to religions practiced within tribes, nations and countries. Japanese shrines and Shintoism, Hinduism in India, Judaism in Israel and Chinese Taoism and Confucianism fall into this category. These religions have close connections with local social customs, conventions and regulations. They do not necessarily have the religious founder or reference books. Take Shintoism as an example, it has no concrete set of teachings but is based on primitive religions and follows national organization. Chinese Taoism, on the other hand, has both the religious founder and special teachings to suit the national tradition. Thus, it is hard to spread to other countries. World religions such as Buddhism, Christianity and Islamism often follow individuals’ free wills to be accepted or not. If you accept this religion, you have to obey its decrees, rites and disciplines which are usually raised and advocated by the religious founder and are centered on this founder’s acts and teachings. Such acts and teachings form its religious teachings and classics. Worldly religions often established beyond the interests of nationalities and countries, so its teachings are based on the whole people of the earth. As a result, world religions are international and universal. Only worldly religions care for the whole people and put saving the people as its basis. So, they have double characteristics of both exploring the inner soul and personal practices.
Christianity, Buddhism and Islamism are termed as three major religions. However, Christianity is regarded as the first religion according to both its scale and influence. Christianity has always played an super important and irreplaceable role in human history and exerted a great impact in the world. So far, all the main developed countries regard Christianity as its mainstream culture except for Japan especially in Europe, America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. Christianity has helped shape human civilization ranging from politics, economics, science, education, culture and art. China has also become one of the countries where Christians increased the fastest in the 20th century except from South America, Africa and South Korea in Asia.
Religion in nature is the worship and obedience towards God who goes beyond nature and human-beings themselves. In religious world, people believe there is a certain god which surpasses all the things on this physical world. The God has the same consciousness, emotions as humans and is able to establish connections with humans.
Sociology sums up there is no doubt that certain conditions confine the existence and periodicity of religions in human society. Changes and development of religious phenomenon, perspective of national development, history of religious development and human’s spiritual demand determine the disappearance of religions. Besides, constant deepening of scientific spirit and rational wisdom also cause the religions to vanish.
However, in the process of history development, religions also have the close relationship with countries. As the development of religion, religious culture has already gone deep into regimes and become an irreplaceable power in running the state apparatus. It even goes over the regime and becomes the utmost tool for the state apparatus. If you look at the development of Yemen, we can find the answers from its historical background.
The republic of Yemen is located in the southwest tip of Arabian Peninsula. This country borders on Saudi Arabia in the north and Oman in the east and faces the red sea to the west, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south. In the May of 1990, South and North Yemens merged into one unified country.
Yemen has a recorded history of more than 3000 years and is one of the cradles of ancient civilizations. But Yemen is also one of the most under-developed countries which cannot self-support on food. Half of its food are imported from foreign countries.
On 2017, September 24 the American president Trump signed the latest blacklist of tourist countries includes Yemen.
On 2018, June 25, an allied army under the leadership of Saudi Arabia launched an air raid to the Aram city of Aram Province in Yemen and caused the death of at least 9 people including women and children. What is the root of this war?
“The volatile Yemen is like a group of dancing snakes”, said, Saleh, the former president of Yemen. This remark is quite to the point.
Till 2015, there appear five political powers in the political arena of Yemen.
The first is the former president Ali Abdul Saleh who owns Shiah armies and families. His faith belongs to the Moral school of Shiah.
The second is the Hussey’s armies and its supporters with the faith in the Moral school of Shiah. He also has large number of supporters in the north of Yemen while has few supporters in the south. Currently, Saleh and Hussay has a joint strong force with Hussey as the main leader. It is reported that Hussey has 20-30 thousand soldiers. In the republican guard, soldiers who are loyal to Saleh’s armed force range from 100 to 250 thousand. In the would-be military department, 100,000 are loyal to Hussey. Outside Yemen, Iran is the open supporter while Russia and North Korea support Yemen in the behind.
The third political power is the current president Hardy which includes Sunnite armies, tribes with the faith in the Sunnite denomination. The army includes security force of close to 160,000 people and an army of 20,000 people. As its population is no match for Hussey’s army, he needs the support of Saudi Arabia. The domestic supporters are distributed in the south while the foreign supporters include Saudi Arabia, The United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Jordan, Sudan, Egypt and Pakistan. The total number of people in the allied force amounts to 150,000. Senegal sent 2100 soldiers into the allied troop. America and The Europe support Hardy in the behind.
The fourth power is the Al-Qaida, Arabian branch with Sunnite as its religion and gains support from the Al-Qaida in the world.
The fifth power is the Isis branch Sunnite and gains support from Islamic countries.
No matter which religious organization they belong to or which country supports them in the behind, their final goal is to deprive the limited fossil fuels in Yemen. The religious denomination, which should have served as a pure religion, now plays the same role as the state apparatus and an accomplice in killing the innocent people.
The road and hope to the world peace become even harder and more distant when the allied air force led by America dropped bombs in Yemen.
According to the development of Yemen in these last decades, the root cause of wars and civil revolt lie in the game between political power and religious power. As a result, disasters and wars are in turn torturing this country. Any country who takes part in Yemen’s affair should get rid of the military force and sit down to have a good negotiation for peaceful solution to protect the innocent civilian, women and children in this country. So that they will never be afflicted by the war and resume a peaceful life. Meanwhile, we should also drive the religion far away from politics and wars.
Although it is hard to realize the separation of politics and wars, there is still hope ahead of us. Let the far-sighted people committed themselves into the world peace campaign voluntarily, especially those youth who can influence and determine the future world. Let the sunlight of world peace shines on the whole earth.